History

Mugardos is, in spite of his reduced extension, one of the municipalities of greater historical personality of the Ferrolterra region.

The antiquity

What today is Mugardos is situated in the called in the past Sinus Artabrorum, known at present like Ártabro Gulf. In this territory finds  the peninsula of Bezoucos peninsula with an approximate surface of 52 km² and that it was inhabited from the prehistory, having axes and habitats from the most ancient periods of the humanity.

This circumstance marks the wealth of this territory, that will continue in roman period with new types of settlements. The roman presence in Mugardos, to the equal that in the rest of the Ártabro Gulf, was very important. In the actuality all the Mugardos coast  is full of rests of roman structures.

The Middle Age

After the disappearance of the Roman Empire in the s. V, only will persist unalterable an institution that extends  by all the ancient imperial territory: the Church.

This had manifested  from the first moment like continuing of the idea of centralisation and of hierarchical organisation of the society. The power of the Church will not leave to grow from the principles of the Half Age. In the "Parrochiale", (s. VI) it appears for the first time the name of Bezoucos (Besaucos), as one of the sixteen archpriesthood of the Episcopalian Headquarters of Iria. The name of Bezoucos derives of the ancient Bisaquis, meaning "between two waters", and does reference to the rivers Xubia and Eume that delimited the peninsula of the same name. The aristocratic families, with important members distributed strategically in the most representative places of the aristocratic power so much secular like clergyman, they will have  practically the whole of the territorial heritage. To the peasants will not remain them more remedy that "entrust" to a gentleman so that this protect them and defend in these periods so convulse political and socially. In return the gentleman will receive a series of taxes in species. It will be the beginning of the feudalization. The disputes centre  between the nobiliar class and the clergyman by the economic command and politician: it will win the ecclesiastical lordship. These fights signal the 11th century like a time of big political unsteadiness. On 28 December 1067 in an available document of some properties of two locals to the abbot of Caaveiro Tedón, will quote  by first time so much the name of the villa like the Mugardos port.

In this century arises the figure of the "cabaleiro". The knight fulfils a function of intermediary between the religious power and the peasantry. In time of weakness of the real power, these noble  take possession by the strength of entrust of the monasteries and over time will pretend to do legal this usurpation. This nobility of the knights will be the cause of the abuses and robberies of all type that will exert on the population peasant in the final centuries of the Half Age.

In Bezoucos the knight that pretended take possession of the territories that possessed in entrusts was the Andrade gentleman. The protests of the peasants arrived to the monarch, the one who issued some licenses forcing to the knights to give back entrust them usurped. But these real orders were broken frequently, since the king did not have means to be able to execute them.

From now the possessions of the Andrade would not leave to extend , already by new real donations, already by usurpation of entrust. Against finals of the s. XIV Fernán Pérez will build monasteries and will endow them abundantly; many of these endowments will be earths usurped previously. "O Bóo" will build the convent of Montefaro (1392), to the one who donate numerous properties, the greater endowment was the villa of Mugardos with his closed shop, jurisdiction and lordship.

The Andrade exempts of the taxes that paid him to him the people from Mugardos so that from this moment these give them to him to the monastery; likewise, it was the convent the one who appointed judge and mayor in the Mugardos villa.

All these circumstances will initiate a series of conflicts between the “mugardeses” and the convent. The inhabitants of Mugardos soon will try to free of the vassalage to the that are subjected by the monks of Montefaro and will initiate a lawsuit that will not finalise until the year 1805.

The lawsuit Montefaro-Mugardos

The start of the lawsuit bases  in the fault of a document that confirm that the Andrade are legitimate owners and gentlemen of Mugardos. This is the main point that allege the inhabitants of Mugardos to refuse the lordship of the Andrade in his villa. They sustain the “mugardeses” that the Andrade usurped to the monastery of Caaveiro a big part of the territories that this possessed in Bezoucos, including Mugardos, that the Andrade had in entrusts. That is to say, that the Andrade, according to the “mugardeses”, endowed to Montefaro of properties that did not belong him legally.

In a document of Enrique II of 1397, this gift to the Andrade varied territories between which explains  the Mugardos parish. It is necessary changing slightly  that the Mugardos parish referred  strictly to the pertaining territory to the parish church.

The summit was more extensive and possibly went this the one who  appropriat  the Andrade taking advantage of a donation of lower rank. They exist documents of back reigns in which the kings Enrique III, Juan II and Enrique IV demand to the noble that give back the territories retained illegally, between these will appear the Andrade.

End of the dependency aristocratic of Mugardos

They were constant the complaints and demands that presented the neighbours to free  of the dependency of Montefaro and happen to depend on the real jurisdiction. The claims take more strength from the 18th century with the advance of the liberal ideas in Europe.

The demand of the “mugardeses“ happens to the Public prosecutor of the Council of Inland revenue, that rid Real Provision to the Montefaro monastery so that it presented "los títulos primordiales de la egresión de la Corona de la Jurisdicción" of the Mugardos Villa. 

The convent presented, in January of 1803, the document of the donation that had done Fernán Pérez of Andrade on 1 July 1397, by what yielded  the monastery of Santa Catalina of Montefaro to the jurisdiction of the Villa of Mugardos with all the lordship of her. It does  also reference to that the villa remained in power of Fernán Pérez because of the donation done by Enrique II.

The neighbours of Mugardos answer that this document presented by the convent is not valid to test the possession, since the gentleman of Andrade did a donation of something that did not belong him, since the Mosteiro does not present the title or document by which the king Enrique II yielded him to Fernán Pérez of Andrade the jurisdiction  on Mugardos.

The Public prosecutor shows  in accordance with the theses defended by the “mugardeses”, and orders to the Mosteiro that present. The paramount titles of the regression of the Crown of the Jurisdiction and, of not to do it like this, will proceed  to kidnapping of the quoted jurisdiction.

We find us already in July of the year 1803, and from here the process of demand turns on the same subject: the impossibility of the Monastery of Montefaro to present the title required by the Real Council of Inland revenue.

In December of 1803 carries out the kidnapping of the Jurisdiction of Mugardos, remaining abolished in this way all the privileges of which enjoyed the friars of Montefaro in the real villa, until it produced  the definite sentence.

The lawsuit lengthens, fundamentally by the successive claims that does the Monastery trying convince to the Real Council of Inland revenue and do cost the document of donation of Fernán Pérez of Andrade like valid to justify his command of the villa of Mugardos.

The sentence did not arrive until the year 1805 and was drafted in the following terms: “Se declara haber lugar a la incorporación a la corona de la Real Villa de Mugardos, su jurisdicción, señorío, y demás derechos anexos a ella. Los Señores de las dos Salas de Justicia y demás togados del Real y Supremo Consejo de Hacienda de S.M. así lo proveyeron, y rubricaron en Madrid a cinco de Enero de mil ochocientos cinco”.

The Convent interposed Instance of Plea that was him admitted, but was not estimated, drafting then the definite sentence: “La Sentencia de vista del Consejo de cinco de Enero de este año se confirma. Los Señores del Real y Supremo Consejo de Hacienda de S.M. de las dos Salas de Justicia, y demás togados, así lo proveyeron y rubricaron en Madrid a primero de Abril de mil ochocientos cinco”.

Later the Real Council rid the corresponding Real Letter enforceable judgment  of the sentence, on request of the neighbours of Mugardos: “Por lo qual os mandamos que luego que la recivais, ó con ella fuereis requeridos, veais la Sentencia de Vista y revista dadas por los del dicho Nuestro Consejo en cinco de Enero, y primero de abril de este año que aquí van instertas. Y cada uno de vos en la parte que os corresponda las guardeis, cumplais y ejecuteis, y hagais guardar, cumplir, y ejecutar en todo, y por todo según como en ella se previene y manda, sin contradecirlas, ni permitir se contravengan en manera alguna, pena de nuestra merced, y de cincuenta mil maravedís para la nuestra Cámara, y gastos de justicia por la mitad al que lo contraviniere, por ser asi nuestra voluntad. Y mandamos también vajo la qual dicha, y en la misma aplicación a qualquier nuestro Escrivano público, ó Real de estos nuestros Reynos y Señorios que en esta Real Carta fuere requerido, la notifique a quien convenga, y de ello dé el testimonio o testimonios convenientes”.